EVALUATION OF PRACTICAL SKILL IN TECHNICAL EDUCATION THROUGH PROCESS/PRODUCT TECHNIQUES’
Monday, September 26, 2011 6:54:32 AM
STRATEGIES FOR EFFECTIVE EVALUATION OF STUDENT PRACTICAL SKILL IN TECHNICAL EDUCATION
SUBJECTS THROUGH PROCESS/PRODUCT TECHNIQUES’
IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA.
MA’AJI CALEB ZONKWA
University Of Nigeria,
This study was conducted to identify strategies for effective evaluation of student’s practical skills in technical education subjects through process and product techniques in Kaduna State.
Process and product techniques are the two basic methods of evaluating the practical skills possessed by students in science and technology education.
The purpose of the study included to identify methods of evaluation most frequently adopted by teachers in assessing students practical skills. In effect it sought to determine which of the two methods (process or product) are most effective in evaluating students practical skills.
Questionnaire was the instrument used in collecting data from the respondents.
The population for the study comprised all teachers teaching practical subjects in all secondary and post secondary institutions in Kaduna State.
There was no sampling employed for this particular study due to the small size of respondents from the two Local Government Areas chosen for the pilot study (i e. Jema’a and Zangon Kataf) in Kaduna State.
The data were analyzed through the use of means, percentages and analyses of variance (ANOVA). The study finding reveled that there is an urgent need for Kaduna State Ministry of Education to have in –house, seminar, workshop and conference for the up-grading of technical teachers’ practices in the evaluation of practical subjects.
The study also revealed that a combination of process and product evaluation techniques is the most effective method of evaluating students skills in practical subjects. Based on the findings, it is recommended that the assessment of practical subjects should be through a combination of process and product evaluation methods.
Background of study
Technical Education is beset with numerous problems in Nigeria. Some of the problems relate to teaching processes and evaluation of student performances....
The methods adopted by some technical teachers in assessing the level of practical skill possessed by student are extremely poor - poor in the sense that process evaluation is not adequately implemented . Rather students are encouraged to buy and present finished products for grades in practical courses . More over technical teachers do not (most a times) understand the importance of the psychomotor domain or give adequate emphasis to it as recommended in Okoro (2000) Nworgu(1992) Ali (1990) .
Chapters 2 to 4
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The restatement of the problem, summary of the procedure use,... as well as recommendation have been presented in this chapter.
SUMMARY OF PROCEDURE USE
The study was carried out using a questionnaire developed by the researcher.
The questionnaire contained 16 items intended to ascertain from teachers of technical and science subjects their opinion on the use of process and product evaluation....analyzed using Mean, Percentages and Analyses of Variance (ANOVA) to test the Hypothesis developed for acceptance or rejection.
1. On individual basis of the three study groups on definition of term, item 8A (PROCESS EVALUATION) and item 8B (PRODUCT EVALUATION), teachers with teaching qualifications (group B) agreed with the definition:....
The study has revealed that not many teachers understand the meaning of process/product technique of evaluation of practical skill:.... in some cases student are encouraged to buy and present ready-made materials for their grades in practical skills. However, written test are regularly used by a number of technical teachers, and majority of the technical teachers agreed that the combination of both process and product evaluation technique is the most effective method in evaluating students practical skills.
In order to achieve success (by teachers in Kaduna State) in appropriate evaluation of practical subjects the following recommendations are made:-
1. Technical teachers should be adequately trained in educational evaluation method .
2. Workshops, Seminars and Conferences to be organized constantly for proper up grading of technical teachers in educational practices in evaluation .
3. Professionally, qualified teachers should be assigned to teach and evaluate technical [educational] subjects.
4 Written cognitive test as strategy in assessing practical skills should be discouraged, since the demand of psychomotor domains and its contents directs the acquisition /assessment of practical skills by actual physical observations.
SUGGESTION FOR FURTHER STUDIES
In the course of the research, especially during validation of questionnaire and pilot - testing, it is observed that there is the need for further studies to
discover and ascertain “Problems, Issues and Dilemmas in the teaching of science and technology in Primary and Secondary Schools in Kaduna State of Nigeria.
These should address :-
1. The use of materials in teaching Practical Subjects
2. Laboratory and Workshops Utilizations
3. Founding of Practical Subjects
4. Handling of Practical Subjects by School Administrators
5. The Teaching of Practical Subjects in Primary Schools especially Vocational Technical Subjects.
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