# physics feed

(pictures and images with some relativistic equations and my theories)

## On the breakdown of Quarks fractional electric charge values.

[PDF]On the breakdown of Quarks fractional electric charge values.

• In the standard model a Baryon is a composite subatomic particle made up of three quarks. (for example: In the case of proton, two Up Quarks and one Down Quark and In the case of neutron two Down Quarks and one Up Quark. ) and mesons, which comprise one quark and one antiquark (Baryons and mesons belong to the hadron family, which are the quark-based particles.)
• The electric charge of Up Quark "thought" to be +2/3 and The electric charge of Down Quark "thought" to be -1/3.
• the origin of believe that Quarks have a fractional electric charge is obscure but "Cramer's Rule", in other word "Quarks fractional electric charge is a philosophical assumption not a physical evidence of the experience." infact this is impossible to have such a fractional electric charge!.
• this "thought" that Quarks have a fractional electric charge values may not be true!.
• according to ahmad reza estakhr research in the field of QCD (Quantum Chromo Dynamics) three times the elementary charge (depending on flavor) Up, Charm and Top Quarks (called Up-Type Quarks) have electric charge of zero! 0 (Which means Up-Type Quarks are uncharged ), while Down, Strange and Bottom Quarks (called Down-Type Quarks) just Could have a electric charge of plus or minus one! (+1, -1)
• in estakhr's model down-type Quarks are results of electroweak interaction between charged leptons and anti leptons and Up-type Quarks, and this is the reason that Quarks do not have fractional electric charge values.
• Which means charge of hadron is not the sum of the charge of its constituent quarks, it is just sum of the charge of Down-Type Quarks.
• The model contains two points:
first: there is no fractional electric charge values.
second: consistent with standard model, three triplet model of quarks composition and make sense.
this is a new class of non-fractionally charged particles which called quarks.
Quarks fractional electric charge is proof that there is something wrong with three triplet model of quarks composition.

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