# Education

A Life Long Journey

## Physics- Part-2

We discussed in the last article the importance of physics as a subject. We also saw that knowledge of physics is essential for understanding other sciences as well. Now comes the real question: How to start studying physics?

PREREQUISITE
For studying physics you must have good knowledge of mathematics and geometry. Mathematics is the language of physics so a student of physics is required to study lots of mathematics (concurrently with physics) to be able to understand physics.
You must have the tendency of understanding things.Some people think that they will manage by learning (memorizing facts) in physics. I would like to tell it very clear to such people that learning without understanding will not be of much help in physics. Success in physics is possible only for those who have a strong tendency to understand things.
You must be able to draw and understand GRAPHS for situations that you analyse in physics. Graphs help us to better visualize a situation.
Very often you will be required to draw diagrams to visualize and better understand a
situation.

How to Begin
It has been experienced by scientists that every phenomenon of nature is directly or indirectly related to motion of some particle, object or to some radiation (which is again wave motion).For example, Chemical reaction is rearrangement of atoms (which is possible only if atoms move).When we touch a hot kettle and we feel its hotness,that becomes possible only because atoms of the kettle are vibrating more vigorously than atoms of our hand, and by touching our hand to the kettle we allow the atoms in our hand to come into intimate contact with atoms of the kettle body. When this happens the atoms of the kettle transfer some of their kinetic energy to those atoms of our hand which are touching them. Thus those atoms in our hand begin to vibrate with greater average speed. This generate a sensory wave that travels from the hand to the brain. The brain interprets the incoming sensory wave as the perception of hotness. Similarly all climatic phenomena depend upon the wind flow. We can cite unending list of examples to support the fact that motion is behind every phenomenon
of nature.
So it is very important that we develop a very thorough understanding of motion before trying to understand other phenomena of nature. That is why the study of physics as a subject starts with studying MECHANICS,which is the physics and the maths of analysing motion. My suggestion to you is that you should make all your efforts to develop a proper understanding of MECHANICS.

You will be required to have a fair knowledge of Algebra, Coordinate Geometry, Trigonometry, Vector Algebra, Differentiation and Integration etc. in maths, to be able to understand Mechanics well. A good physics teacher will concurrently teach you the essentials of all these topics in maths to
enable you to understand Mechanics.
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Those students who are desirous of studying Physics and Maths from me can click here.
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For reading my articles on IIT-JEE preparation go to the List of all my articles.
For any help or query you can contact me (J.P.Sinha) on my mobile +91 9871 222 426 (it is a New Delhi mobile)Please call only between 8.00am and 10.00am IST

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## Physics- Part-1

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<ALIGN=CENTER STYLE="margin-bottom: 0in">How to study Physics in 11th and 12th class?-Part-1

Note:In this part, I will be explaining to you the importance of Physics as a subject of study.

Physics is the most fundamental science. Knowledge of physics forms the base for all the branches of
science and engineering. So for a science student it is very important to gain a basic knowledge of physics. That is why physics is a compulsory subject for science students in 11th and
12th class in India.

What is Physics?
It is very easy to define chemistry or biology. Chemistry is the science that studies material
transformations which occur in nature. Biology is the science that studies about Life and Processes related to Life. Chemistry and Biology have therefore a very well defined area of interest.

But if we consider physics, we see, in physics we study about motion, force, energy, light, heat,
gravitation, electricity, atoms, nucleus of atoms, molecules, planets, stars, universe etc. the list is endless. Thus we see, in physics we study about atoms, nucleus, electrons, protons, neutrons, quarks... at one extreme, and we study about galaxies and universe at the other extreme. And in physics we also study about everything that comes in between these two extremes. So what is left?
Nothing frankly! So we can say in physics we study about everything that is part of nature. That is why it is very difficult to define the scope of physics. But still if we like to define physics we can
say Physics is that branch of science in which we try to understand the rules by which the nature works at every level of its existence (from microscopic to the mega macroscopic)

People think that by studying science in general, and physics in particular, they will be able to answer all the WHY?, WHAT? Or HOW? questions. But mind you, that is not the aim of physics. Aim of physics is to understand the rules behind the working of nature. Yes, by gaining such understanding you will surely answer some WHY?, WHAT? or HOW? questions, but some questions may remain unanswered. For example, everybody knows that some particles(like electrons) posses a property called Electrical Charge. But why do they possess electric charge? Why there are two kinds of charges in nature whereas there is only one kind of mass? Why electrical force can be both attractive or repulsive whereas
gravitational force is always attractive? There is no answer to these questions. These are facts. Yes, in future with the expansion in our knowledge about the rules of nature, we may answer some of these
questions but today we can't. And even if we don't know the answers to these "why?" questions, then also the knowledges that we gained from the above facts are helpful to human race. The entire branch of electrical engineering is based on the fact that Electric Charge exists which can flow through a conducting wire to give Electric Current. Although we don't know why electric charge exists
in the first place.

Since we study about the entire nature in physics that is why the knowledge gained in physics about nature is universally applicable. For example, Law of Conservation of Energy has been find to be true everywhere. Newton's Laws of motion are (at small speeds) true for every moving object, whether living or non-living or astronomical.

Knowledges about the rules of working of nature that we gain in physics are very useful for other sciences as well. For example, the knowledges about the structure of atoms or about how atoms can
combine to form molecules... etc have been generated in physics (in Quantum Mechanics). These knowledges form the foundation for chemistry. The subject of chemistry can't even begin if we do not
have a proper understanding of atoms and their structure. So we see chemistry is totally dependent upon physics for its foundations. That is why Physical Chemistry( which is “physics needed to
understand chemistry”) is one of the branch of chemistry which every chemistry student must study. Biology of modern times is totally dependent upon chemistry. Because today in biology, we know,
all life-processes are controlled by genes which are sequences of DNA( Deo-xyribonucleic Acid). Genes regulate life processes by chemically manufacturing hormones ( a chemical compound). So we see,
chemistry depends upon physics and biology depends upon chemistry. Thus, we see, indirectly biology too depends upon physics. Biology directly needs the knowledge of physics too. For example, to understand the working of brain we need the knowledge of electromagnetic waves and their properties, because Neurons interact with one another through em-waves. Experimental biology uses the techniques and discoveries in physics directly for its benefit. For example, structure of cell ( building
block of life) was known only with the help of Electron Microscope. Structure of DNA was understood with the help of techniques called X-ray crystallography.

That is why physics is called the mother of all sciences

For reading my articles on IIT-JEE preparation go to the List of all my articles.

Those students who are desirous of studying Physics and Maths from me can click here.

For any help or query you can contact me (J.P.Sinha) on my mobile +91 9871 222 426 (it is a New Delhi mobile)Please call only between 8.00am and 10.00am IST

## LIST of all my Articles and Blogs

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Those students who are desirous of studying Physics and Maths from me can click here.

For any help or query you can contact me (J.P.Sinha) on my mobile +91 9871 222 426 ( it is a New Delhi mobile) Please call only between 8.00am and 10.00am IST

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## How was IIT-JEE-2009 Question Paper-1?

Analysis of Question Papers of IIT-JEE-2009.

AUTHOR-J.P.Sinha. Delhi based Teacher for IIT-JEE/PMT

IIT-JEE-2009 consisted of two question papers of three hours duration each. Each question paper carried 240 marks. Thus the total maximum marks for IIT-JEE-2009 was 480. Questions from all the three subjects- chemistry, physics and mathematics- were present in each of the paper.

PAPER-1

Paper-1 contained 60 questions in total - 20 of chemistry, 20 of maths and 20 of physics. Paper-1 consisted of 3 Parts. Part-1 contained 20 questions of chemistry. Part-2 contained 20 questions of maths, and similarly Part-3 contained 20 questions of physics.

Questions in each PART were grouped into four sections.

SECTION-1 of each PART cotained 8 multiple choice questions(MCQs). In these, each question had 4 choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) for its answer, out of which only one was correct. Marking Scheme was : Three(3) marks for each correct attempt. Zero(0) Marks for not attempting a question, and, minus one (-1) for wrong attempt of a question.

SECTION-2 of each PART contained 4 MCQs. Each question had 4 choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) for its answer, out of which ONE or MORE could be correct. And to get marks a student was required to identify all the correct choices in a question. Marking Scheme was : Four(4) marks for each correct attempt. Zero(0) Marks for not attempting a question, and, minus one (-1) for wrong attempt of a question.

SECTION-3 of each PART consisted of two groups of questions. Each group was based of a paragraph and contained 3 questions. Thus there were 6 questions in this section. In these, each question had 4 choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) for its answer, out of which only one was correct. Marking Scheme was : Four(4) marks for each correct attempt. Zero(0) Marks for not attempting a question, and, minus one (-1) for wrong attempt of a question.

SECTION-4 of each PART contained 2 questions. Each question was Matching Type. There were two columns in each question. Column 1 had four statements ( A,B,C and D) and Column 2 had five statements ( p,q,r,s and t ). Any statement  in Column 1 can have correct matching with one or more statements of Column 2. Marking Scheme: Two (2) marks were awarded for identifying all the correct matches of a statement in Column 1 with those  of statements in Column-2. Thus for 4 statements in Column 1, each question allowed an opportunity to score upto a maximum of 8 marks. There were no negative marking for incorrect matchings in this section. For getteing marks, however, a student was required to identify all the correct matches of a statement in Column-1 with those in Column-2 to get 2 marks for that statement.

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For reading my other articles on IIT-JEE preparation go to  List of all my Articles on IIT-JEE/PMT preparation

FOR any help or query contact me (J.P.Sinha) at my mobile+91 9871 222 426 (it is a New Delhi mobile number).Please call only between 8.00am and 10.00am, Indian Time

## How was IIT-JEE-2009 Question Paper-2 ?

Analysis of Question Papers of IIT-JEE-2009.

AUTHOR-J.P.Sinha. Delhi based Teacher for IIT-JEE/PMT

IIT-JEE-2009 consisted of two question papers of three hours duration each. Each question paper carried 240 marks. Thus the total maximum marks for IIT-JEE-2009 was 480.Questions from all the three subjects- chemistry, physics and mathematics- were present in each of the paper.

PAPER-2

Paper-2 contained 57 questions in total - 19 of chemistry, 19 of maths and 19 of physics. Paper-2 consisted of 3 Parts. Part-1 contained 19 questions of chemistry. Part-2 contained 19 questions of maths, and similarly Part-3 contained 19 questions of physics. For knowing the details of Paper-1 click here.

Questions in each PART were grouped into four sections.

SECTION-1 of each PART cotained 4 multiple choice questions(MCQs). In these, each question had 4 choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) for its answer, out of which only one was correct. Marking Scheme was : Three(3) marks for each correct attempt. Zero(0) Marks for not attempting a question, and, minus one (-1) for wrong attempt of a question.

SECTION-2 of each PART contained 5 MCQs. Each question had 4 choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) for its answer, out of which ONE or MORE could be correct. And to get positive marks a student was required to identify all the correct choices in a question. Marking Scheme was : Four(4) marks for each correct attempt. Zero(0) Marks for not attempting a question, and, minus one (-1) for wrong attempt of a question.

SECTION-3 of each PART contained 2 questions. Each question was Matching Type. There were two columns in each question. Column 1 had four statements ( A,B,C and D) and Column 2 had five statements ( p,q,r,s and t ). Any statement  in Column 1 can have correct matching with one or more statements of Column 2. Marking Scheme: Two (2) marks were awarded for identifying all the correct matches of a statement in Column 1 with those  of statements in Column-2. Thus for 4 statements in Column 1, each question allowed an opportunity to score upto a maximum of 8 marks. There were no negative marking for incorrect matchings in this section. For getteing +2 marks for a statement in Column-1, however, a student was required to identify all the correct matches of a statemant in Column-1 with those in Column-2.

SECTION-4 of each part contained 8 questions. There answer to each of the questions was a single digit integer, ranging from 0 to 9. Marking Scheme was: Four(4) marks for each correct answer. Zero(0) Marks for not attempting a question, and, minus one (-1) for wrong attempt of a question.

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For reading my other articles on IIT-JEE preparation go to  List of all my Articles on IIT-JEE/PMT preparation

FOR any help or query contact me (J.P.Sinha) at my mobile+91 9871 222 426 (it is a New Delhi mobile number).Please call only between 8.00am and 10.00am, Indian Standard Time.

## FUNDA

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List of all my articles on IIT-JEE/PMT preparation:-CLICK HERE to go to the page that contains the list of all the articles written by me on IIT-JEE and PMT preparation.

Formulae and Concepts: For the benefits of students studying in 11th and 12th standards, I have written some SUBJECT related articles. In these articles, I have given important formulae, tricks, some not-so-well-known concepts... etc., of different topics in Physics and Mathematics.] Links to those articles are given below:

TRIGONOMETRY:

2. Basic Formulae: This article contains all the basic formulae of trigonometry.

LOGARITHM:

1. INTRODUCTION:Gives a brief introduction to the idea of logarithm.
2. LOGARITHM-2: -In this article I have tried to show that logarithm can be treated as a Function in mathematics
3. Basic Formulae:-In this you can find basic formulae of logarithm

PHYSICS - MOTION-11th Class

1. Introduction: In this article I have discussed the fundamental concept of Reference frame, Position and Motion.These concepts are not properly discussed in books.

FOR any help or query contact me (J.P.Sinha)on my mobile +91 9871 222 426(it is a New Delhi mobile number).Please call only between 8.00am and 10.00am IST

Those students who are desirous of studying Physics and Maths from me can click here.

## Recommended Books for IIT-JEE.

WARNING:- Never use too many books.Always study from one or at most two good books.First study a chapter from a text book and only after finishing from text book, you should use any guide or reference books You should not buy all the following books.Buy one text book and one IIT-JEE guide in each subject. Go to a book shop and see all the books listed below.The one that appeals you more is the one that you should buy.

Recommended Books:

1. NCERT-books;
2. Concept of Physics-by H.C.Verma : Exercises and solved numericals of this book are of high quality;
3. Plane Coordinate Geometry- by S.L.Loney: Contains detailed treatment of the subject.But style of presentation is a bit old fashioned.
4. Objective Mathematics- by R.D.Sharma
5. IIT-Maths-by M.L.Khanna;
6. IIT Guides-Tata McGrow Hill Publication;
7. MCQ Maths-by Das Gupta(Bharti Bhavan Publication);
8. PHYSICS Part 1&2-by Resnik and Halliday;
9. Book by IRODOV for Problems in Physics.
10. Maths books by K.C.Sinha from Student's Friends Publication: Books by this author is meant to be used as reference books only.
11. Books and Guides of Arihant Prakashan:There are several titles available for IIT-JEE in this publication.Choose the suitable one that fulfills your requirement.Books in "Objective Approach..." series and "New Pattern IIT..." series are particularly good.
12. Books and Guides of MTG- Publication:There are several titles available for IIT-JEE in this publication.Choose the suitable one that fulfills your requirement.

Selecting text book for Physics: Advice

Many students ask to me "From which book should I study Physics?". The wording of their Question gives an impression to me that the availability of great number text books in Physics for IIT-JEE preparation has totally confused them.

My advice to all such students is very simple and straight forward: read basic concepts from any one good book. Do not read any topic from too many books. Start a topic or a chapter by reading it from NCERT first.Solve all problems contained in NCERT.Then do some problems of the type asked in entrance exams from that topic. After this, you will be able to judge for yourself if reading that topic/chapter from some advanced book is necessary or not. If you feel that what you learnt from NCERT is not enough to solve questions in competitive exams then (and only then !) read that topic from some other advanced book.For this you can use "Resnik and Halliday's book". Other books can also be used according to your personal preference.

Those students who are desirous of studying Physics and Maths from me can click here.

For reading other articles of this series:

LIST OF ALL Articles:-On this page you can find the list of all the articles written by me any where on the net.I have provided hyper-links to let you go to the articles quickly.

FOR any help or query contact me (J.P.Sinha) on my mobile "+91 9871 222 426"(it is a New Delhi mobile number).Please call only between 8.00am and 10.00am IST

## How to prepare for IIT-JEE/ PMT?/ Part-3

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Problem Solving skills in Maths and Physics.

AUTHOR-J.P.Sinha.Teacher for IIT-JEE/PMT

For science/maths students in general, and IIT-JEE or PMT aspirants in particular, learning the skills of problem solving is very important.Questions and problems in science (especially physics!) and maths contain factual, conceptual, theoretical and numerical ingredients all entangled with each other.And this makes solving them tough for the beginners.That is why students begin to fear Physics and Maths because these two subjects requires finest quality of problem solving skills from students.There is no universal technique that can solve all problems because different problems usually require different methods and approaches for successful solution. Nevertheless, if a student works systematically then soon problem solving will become fun for him/her.

Thus for the benefits of the student community (or any body who is interested in learning the art of the problem solving) I have presented below a sequence of steps that, if followed, can immensely help in solving questions in Physics and Maths.

PART-1:

• Identify what is being asked.
• Make a list of knowns and unknowns.
• Note carefully the information given.(Sometimes, some informations which are part of general-knowledge are not specifically given.Note such relevant informations-if any.)
• Sketch a neat diagram or a rough graph to aid your thinking.(Diagrams and graphs should be drawn in such a way that they describe the situation of the problem clearly.)
• If you can make an estimate of the final solution (by reasoning or some logical guess!), then you must do that. Because at the end when you actually get your answer by solving the problem then you can check the truthfulness of your answer by comparing it with your estimate.

PART-2 :

• Write a verbal description of relationship among all quantities.
• Write all relevant formulae known to you involving known and unknown quantities.
• Examine similar problems to see if their solution techniques are applicable.
• Look for a pattern so that you may think upto many steps ahead of your calculations.
• You may start with a special simpler case to gain insight.
• Sometimes a problem may be broken into two or more number of non-overlaping cases and each case may be solved separately.

PART-3:

• DO all calculations according to your decided plan.
• Check your solution with your estimate and graph. Does it make sense? Does it seem resonable?
• If every thing seems fine, then you have got your solution.

CONGRATULATIONS!

Those students who are desirous of studying Physics and Maths from me can click here.

FOR any help or query contact me (J.P.Sinha)on my mobile +91 9871 222 426(it is a New Delhi mobile number).Please call only between 8.00am and 10.00am IST

Other articles of this series:

1. Part-1:-This explains how you can begin your preparation when you enter class- 11th .
2. Part-2: This explains how you can give your preparation a good finish.
3. Preparation after passing 12th board exam: I have written this article for those students who have already passed 12th and are preparing for IIT-JEE/PMT.
4. Book List:In this you can get an indicative Book List for IIT-JEE preparation.
5. LIST OF ALL Articles:-On this page you can find the list of all the articles written by me any where on the net.I have provided hyper-links to let you go to the articles quickly.

## How to prepare for IIT/PMT?/ PART-2

STAGE:2

AUTHOR-J.P.Sinha.Teacher for IIT-JEE/PMT

To prepare for IIT-JEE/PMT (or other medical and engineering entrances)you should first finish the NCERT books of 11th and 12th(as described in PART-1of this series of articles).

Then you should go for some self assesement by solving few sample papers of IIT/PMT published regularly in different competition magazines.Or you may use some good GUIDE book, to solve plenty of questions from each chapter in each subject to assess your level of knowledge and acquired problem-solving-skills in different chapters.

In this way you will be able to know your strong and weak areas.Then based on this experience you should do extra reading of the concepts in topics that are your weakness.Then, again more sample papers and previous year papers should be solved.And based on your performance in such papers you should decide the topics in which you need extra work.In this way your preparation at the personal level will be completed by the time you reach 12th class.And at this level of your preparation you will feel that you can clear entrances like DCE,DPMT,BITS-Pilani...etc.And you have not joined any coaching yet!

Now to remain focussed you may join a 'one year course' at any reputable coaching institute.There you will be made to do regular problem solving practice.Since you are already done with the entire syllabus(if you followed the above programme of study!) so at the coaching you won't feel any problem in understanding complicated numaricals that are generally discussed in a coaching class. And your problem solving skills will be further sharpened.

And you will certainly find your self in some IIT( or a medical college) the next year pursuing the course of your dream.

Those students who are desirous of studying Physics and Maths from me can click here.

FOR any help or query contact me (J.P.Sinha) on my mobile +91 9871 222 426 (it is a New Delhi mobile number).Please call only between 8.00am and 10.00am IST

Other articles of this series:

1. Part-1:-This explains how you can begin your preparation when you enter class-11th.
2. LIST OF ALL Articles:-On this page you can find the list of all the articles written by me any where on the net.I have provided hyper-links to let you go to the articles quickly.

## How to prepare for IIT/PMT?/Part-1

To know how to prepare for IIT or PMT(or any other medical or engineering entrance ) read the following carefully.
AUTHOR-J.P.Sinha.Teacher for IIT-JEE/PMT

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NOTE:This part(in blue colour) is being written on 9th March 2012.
According to the proposed new Admission Policy, for admission to Engineering and Medical courses in India(which is likely to be implemented from next year),the marks obtained by a student in his/her 12th board exam will be a very important factor in deciding the admission of the student to an Engineering or a Medical college. In the light of this new proposed Admission Policy, the plan-of-study suggested by me in this article and the Part-2 of this article has become more relevant than before.

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In India,the moment a student passes out of 10th std., and takes science in 11th/12th, he receives a big shock.The way different subjects are developed in 11th are so different from that in 10th that many students get totally overwhelmed. But after one or two months most students get used to the new syllabus.Even then the preparation of IIT/PMT seems impossible to many.Different people respond differently to this seemingly tough situation.But my experience as a teacher ( I have been teaching PHYSICS/MATHS to 11th/12th students of science in Delhi in the sector of tuition/coaching for the last several years!) says that there is no need to panic at all.

A student should divide the work of IIT/PMT preparation into two stages.

STAGE ONE:
Initially students should simply concentrate on the basic NCERT syllabus. NCERT books are very good for basic concept building.They are also not very lengthy.So one can easily finish the entire 11th + 12th syllabus in eight to nine months, if one is sincere.During this stage, while they are studying NCERT texts, students should practice MCQ problem solving from any popular private publication books e.g. Pradeep,Dinesh etc.For really speedy completion of syllabus according to this plan, personal home tuition may be taken in each subject.In this way, within the first eight-nine months of 11th class, the entire +2 syllabus will be completed at the basic level along with some good amount of problem solving practice for the students.I would also like to emphasize that students should also make it their habbit to keep revising what they have already studied at regular intervals(say,on weekly basis).

Many students take admission in big coachings in the beginning of the class 11th . Most such students never get selected in any IIT/PMT institution.Why?!.... Very simple!. In these coachings, in the name of advanced preparation, blind problem solving is promoted.There, basic concepts are not taught properly, and just formulae are discussed as part of theory teaching.Then right away, very tough questions are introduced to be solved.These questions generally pass over the head of most students.The teacher solves those questions in the class or sometimes students are given printed solutions of the assignments from their institute.Students try to learn those solutions without learning the art that "How to solve a new question by applying systematic thinking to it with the help of basic concepts?"

Those students who are desirous of studying Physics and Maths from me can click here.
FOR any help or query contact me (J.P.Sinha)on my mobile +91 9871 222 426 (it is a New Delhi mobile number).Please call only between 8.00am and 10.00am IST