Friday, March 8, 2013 4:58:58 AM
Perhaps the most famous powerchair scientist of all time is Stephen Hawking. Stephen is not alone among famous scientists in having a disability. Einstein had a learning disability and could not read until he was three years old, may have been dyslexic and probably had Aspergs syndrome, a form of autism, while both Pythagaurus and Isaac Newton had epilepsy. Many other scientists had milder forms of disability. Stepehn Hawking, however, is probably the most famous of scientists, well known for overcoming his disability to both come up with groundbreaking scientific theoris and to write best selling books.
Stephen Hawing was born in London in 1942. Despite his father's wish that he study medicine, he enrolled in University College, Oxford, where he studied Physics as his preferred subject, mathematics, was not available. During his university years he enjoyed sport for the first time, when he took up coxing and rowing. However, during his third year at Oxford he noticed that he was starting to get clumsier, which lead him to have a couple of falls.
After graduating with a first class honors degree in science Stephen went on to Cambridge to do research in Cosmology. According to Stephen, it was while he was in Camridge that his father noticed that he was clumsy and took him to the family doctor. There followed a battery of tests, which included sticking electrodes into his arms and watching radioactive fluid go up and down his spine. During this time Stephen also fell down a flight of stairs, hitting his head and knocking himself unconscious. This incident lead him to take the Mensa test, as he worried that his intellectual capabilties might have been affected.
At the age of 21 Stephen was diagnosed with Amyotrophic Lateral Schlerosis, a form of Motor Neuroene Disease, and given three years to live. Stephen reports that he was bored and depressed before he was diagnosed with the illness, and being diagnosed with a terminal illness made him realise that there was so much worth living for.
Fortunately, the disease has progressed much slower than usual. However, as a result Stephen has gradually lost the use of first his limbs and then, after a trachetomy operation following pneumoia, his speech.
Immediately after the operation Stephen was only able to communicate by spelling out letters one at a time. He did this by raising or lowering his eyebrows when someone held out a spelling card. Fortunately, a Californian computer expert called Waltz Waldoz sent Stephen a computer program called the Equalizer. This allows Stephen to communicate by selecting words from a series of menus on a screen. The system was controlled by a switch that could be operated by simple head or eye movement. Later on a small portable computer and speech synthesizer was fixed to Hawking's wheelchair (currently a Pride power chair).
Stephen is now able to control not the just the movement of his power chair but many of the electronic devices in his house such as the television, video recorder and music centre via a programmable infra-red controller attached to the computer system on his chair. In addition, he has a remote control device which allows him to operate doors and lights both at home and at work.
Despite his disability, Stephen Hawking has made a huge number of discoveries and achievements, from new theories regarding black holes, writing best selling books to floating in zero gravity and appearing in episodes of the Simpsons (where it was revealed that his power chair could fly!) He was also elected one of the youngest fellows of the Royal Society of London in 1974 and is the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the UK university, a post once held by Sir Isaac Newton.
Physicist Stephen Hawking suffers from Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Hawking has near complete paralysis but retains enough muscle control to allow him to press a button with his right hand. A computer screen displays a series of icons that allow control of his wheelchair, doors and appliances in his house. He can select items on the screen by pressing the button when a moving cursor passes over the correct area of the screen.
Hawking speaks in a similar manner. The screen displays the alphabet, with a cursor moving over it. He presses the button at the appropriate letter. Once he has constructed a complete sentence, he can send the text to the voice synthesizer built into his chair [source: Professor Stephen Hawking]. Hawking’s ability to move a finger on his right hand differentiates him from many other victims of paralysis or disease, who are unable to communicate or interact with control systems at all.
He said about his com-chair, "Since 1997, my computer-based communication system has been sponsored and provided by Intel® Corporation. A tablet computer mounted on the arm of my wheelchair is powered by my wheelchair batteries, although the tablets internal battery will keep the computer running if necessary.
My main interface to the computer is through a program called EZ Keys, written by Words Plus Inc. This provides a software keyboard on the screen. A cursor automatically scans across this keyboard by row or by column. I can select a character by moving my cheek to stop the cursor. My cheek movement is detected by an infrared switch that is mounted on my spectacles. This switch is my only interface with the computer. EZ Keys includes a word prediction algorithm, so I usually only have to type the first couple of characters before I can select the whole word. When I have built up a sentence, I can send it to my speech synthesizer. I use a separate hardware synthesizer, made by Speech+. It is the best I have heard, although it gives me an accent that has been described variously as Scandinavian, American or Scottish.
Through EZ Keys I can also control the mouse in Windows. This allows me to operate my whole computer. I can check my email using the Eudora email client, surf the internet using Firefox, or write lectures using Notepad. My latest computer from Intel, based on an Intel® Core™ i7 Processor and Intel® Solid-State Drive 520 Series, also contains a webcam which I use with Skype to keep in touch with my friends. I can express a lot through my facial expressions to those who know me well.
I can also give lectures. I write the lecture beforehand and save it on disk. I can then send it to the speech synthesiser a sentence at a time using the Equalizer software written by Words Plus. It works quite well and I can try out the lecture and polish it before I give it.
I keep looking into new assistive technologies, and recently Intel® have sponsored a team of its engineers to design a new facial recognition system aimed at improving my communication speed. They also have some new ideas regarding my software interface and it will be interesting to see the results of this. It looks quite promising. I have also experimented with Brain Controlled Interfaces to communicate with my computer however as yet these don't work as consistently as my cheek operated switch."
Current configuration of his computer:
Lenovo ThinkPad X220 Tablet (2 copies)
Intel® Core™ i7-2620M CPU @ 2.7GHz
Intel® 150Gb Solid-State Drive 520 Series
Speech Synthesizers (3 copies):
Manufacturer - Speech Plus (Incorporated 1988, Mountain View, CA)
Model - CallText 5010
Thursday, October 11, 2012 5:44:40 AM
In my previous blog I have written an article on Munwar Sultan, who was my grandmothers father,that he was a gentle and pious man and a humanitarian.I have received lots of replies that sometimes filled me with joy and sometimes shattered me like glss jar. Some readers could not believe me, some historians got fishy about my blog. They had no idea about Munwar Sultan. For them I assert this trial paper from Kolkata court.
Calcutta High Court
Munwar Sultan vs Shamsunnessa Begum on 18 December, 1922
Equivalent citations: AIR 1924 Cal 658
1. I am of opinion that the course taken in the Court below affords not a little just grievance to the lady against whom the proceedings were taken, but it affords none whatever to the present Appellant. The smallest attention to the words of the Indian Lunacy Act whether they be the words of Section 62 or the words of Section 38 shows this, that the Legislature appreciates that to have an inquisition into the state of health, the state of mind, the the state of property and general capacity of a person is a thing which affects that person so prejudicially that it ought not to be taken except it be first ordered upon a careful consideration of evidence. It was said in a case, which is, I think, the case to which some reference is made in the judgment of the Court below Muhammad Yaqub v. Nazir Ahmad (1920) 42 All. 504. "It is true that nothing is contained in the Act itself to direct or guide a Judge as to how he shall consider applications for an inquisition and probably no rules exist for dealing with the matter; but ordinary common sense would appear to dictate to a tribunal before whom such an application comes that care should be exercised in a painful matter of this kind, namely, an inquiry into a man's or woman's state of mind; specially in the case of people in comfortable circumstances who merely wish to lead a quiet life, care should be exercised that they are not suddenly flung without sufficient reason into an elaborate inquisition which after all is nothing more or less than a trial involving sometimes the history of a person's life back for many years, medical evidence, and all sorts of family witnesses." Now, in this case, an application was presented to the learned District Judge and was registered on the 31st of March, 1922. In May of that year the lady against whom it was made, who appears to be an old lady and a purdanashin lady, filed a sworn statement in reply and certain documents having been filed, the first order made is No. 5 of the 15th of May. "Pleader for petitionerapp ears and states that a very lengthy written statement has been filed by the Opposite Party and that until he has had time to consider the objections it will not be possible for issues to be framed." Now, that shows that the pleader for the petitioner had entirely omitted to notice that, before anything like an enquiry involving framing of issues should be undertaken, the learned Judge had a most important duty to perform as regards this lady. He had no business whatever to tumble into an inquisition. His business was carefully to consider whether there were any grounds for holding an inquisition. The order goes on : "It is desirable however that the hearing of this case should be expedited as much as possible. Issues will be settled on the 22nd of May." That seems to me to show that the learned Judge had entirely omitted to notice what the duty was that rested heavily on his shoulders. On the 22nd May, in pursuance of the attitude disclosed by the Order of the 15th an issue was framed being no less than a complete issue as to whether the lady was of unsound mind and incapable of managing herself and her affairs. Accordingly the Judge said : "It will now be necessary to have a report of the mental capacity and condition of the alleged lunatic;" and then, after some little time, on the 31st two eminent medical practioners were appointed to make an examination. Thereupon, the lady filed an application and it is rather interesting to see the attitude of mind disclosed by this application. I propose to take the narrative as regards this from the judgment of the learned Judge himself : "Therefore, on the 16th June last, application was filed on behalf of (sic) Begum praying that the inquisition which had been ordered to be held by two medical officers," - this may be a mere quotation but it shows a considerable confusion of mind on the part of somebody - "might not be proceeded with on the ground that it would involve considerable expense and inconvenience, and praying that instead thereof the Court would be pleased to fix a date for personal examination of the alleged lunatic in camera with a view to ascertaining whether she is, in fact, a lunatic and whether there is any need for holding an inquisition." A more proper application than that I find it difficult to conceive. I should have thought that the lady was entitled to apply to this Court in revision to have the proceedings in the Court below stopped. She applied, however, to the trial Court asking it to do its duty to consider whether there was any need for holding an inquisition and, in support of that application, she called attention of the Court to the case of Muhammad Yaqub v. Nazir Ahmad (1920) 42 All. 504 which rightly or wrongly advises the Judges before ordering an inquisition to take steps, if possible, to see the alleged lunatic in person. The learned Judge in the present case appreciated the force of the lady's application, and accordingly an order was made directing that she should be examined in camera and the learned Judge's order says : "In these circumstances," he has referred to some matters of suspicion "It is the more desirable that the Court should see the alleged lunatic and satisfy itself whether there are any grounds for ordering the inquisition formerly prayed for." Those are the words of the learned Judge's own order. He did see the alleged lunatic and her answers are in the paper-book. He came to the conclusion having regard to the allegations in the petition that the whole application of the applicant was a piece of oppression and was mala, fide, and he dismissed the application then and there. It is said that the learned Judge had begun the inquisition. I quite appreciate the force of the criticism that is made in this connection, but here the learned Judge had slid into the proceedings proper to an inquisition without knowing it and without making any order or coming to any decision which would entitle him to commence it. It is arguable that the power conferred by Section 41 of the Indian Lunacy Act is a power which only arises when an inquisition has been ordered. The present case is not a case of the Court exercising a power to require the lunatic to come before it personally. This is a case where the alleged lunatic herself asked to be examined and the learned Judge had at any rate some authority in his support in examining the lady in the presence of the parties, even on the assumption that there was no inquisition. In these circumstances, what happened was that owing to the lady's taking a very reasonable step in making her well-founded application on the 16th of June, the learned Judge saw his error. He came to the conclusion that there was no ground for ordering an inquisition and he must have, I think, repented of the fact that ha had not with sufficient care followed the statute and let himself slide into holding an inquisition which he had no jurisdiction to hold. In these circumstances in seems to me that while the alleged lunatic may have some grievance in the matter, the present appellant has none, and that his appeal should be dismissed with costs, hearing fee two gold mohurs.
2. I agree.
Friday, January 6, 2012 9:00:18 AM
I did not tell you about my trip to Europe on bicycle. We three friends (girls) who were at that time quite young to know what could be lied in our way that worth almost 6000 miles long. We were all bikers and already travelled 3500 miles on our bikes but 6000 miles are more than 3500 miles and we were all tensed. My family did not say anything but theirs had problems. So we had to flee. We did not stop our journey for a day until Kolkata but in Kolkata we had to stop due to fever. Delhi was far away from Kolkata that we had never put in our thought before. There were many happenings that I can’t and do not need to elaborate. Finally, we could reach Delhi on bike and decided not to travel on bike, rather we started travelling on bus. Pakistan at that time issued port entry visas. It was a long time stop over there. After 10 days we started our journey again. We secured Afgan, Turkey, and Bulgarian visas from Delhi. Entering Afganistan from Pakistan was troublesome because of desert and mountain. There is a highway through the desert but once you run out your water you will die. But we had to take the risk. Either you stop here or go on till death. Biking around the world is not risky like you travel through a desert on a bike. Yes we had to take the risk until Kabul. You can find lions in those areas where Osama Bin Laden thought to hide himself. It was really a perilous desert with red soiled mountains. A ferocious beauty of the nature. But we had become sick again at Kabul. So after more 10 days we started again on bus for Tehran. We changed our bus at the border and left Afganistan. Tehran then Rejoa then at ercis we entered Turkey. Travelled Diyarbakir, Ankara and Istanbul on bus and entered Bulgaria riding. cycle. At Plovdiv city we packed our bikes and got into train for Sophia. We did not enter Yugoslavia and leaving it on left we entered cris cross into Romania but could not reach Bucharest. It was at the other side. We travelled for Hungary border for a cross country visa. One of my two friends left us at Romania. She would fly for Paris. We had lots of money. Almost all of it were collected on the way from the educational institutions through the students. Collected money amounted 10000 usd were alloted for each one of us. She flew from her money. We travelled on the way untill Budapest and from Budapest we flew for Paris and from Paris we entered into Germany riding. Entered Switzerland then flew for London. After reaching London we met Rebeka and stayed there for one month. We planned for USA but could not make it. Oh I forgot, the two phoned their family that they should not have thought about them. London poked me to come back again for higher study so after coming back to Bangladesh and having passed A-Level I flew for London alone and passed another 5 years without coming to Bangladesh. Now I am planning to live in the USA to work for NASA or some similar posts as an astronomer.
Friday, December 23, 2011 11:17:32 AM
For the third time she looked at the man and missed another heartbeat. Oh god! How a man can be so beautiful! He was more than that! If there was something to apply she would do that. She in her mind kissed him many times on his cheek and lips. She was also pretty. If a man would ever look at her, look for a second time. But this man was different. He did not look at her for the second time. Just a glance at her then idly averted his eyes to another direction. He got up in the same compartment of the train and sat in front of her row, on the other side. Rani could see his face clearly. When he first got in the compartment he wore beautiful stripped full sleeve shirt that was tucked under a black pant. A nice shiny buckle on a leather belt. He was just a prince. He entered into the compartment and put his leather bag onto the shelf above his seat. She could not avert her eyes from him-the beautiful prince.
And now it was thirty two, she tried to count, thirty two times she looked at him and every time she swallowed. She did not do it before. Never! No man before him could attract her eyes this way. Is this called love at first sight? May be. Rani thought she would go and sit beside him and extend a hand to introduce. But she could not. No woman can do that, she thought, a matter of prestige and shame. What if she tried to pass beside him and push him and acted that she fell? Would he come to get her up?
The train gave a whistle. Her heartbeat started beat faster. Would he get off? The train started to slow down. But he did not get off. Rani heaved a sigh of relief. Now this was 66 times she looked at him. An old woman was observing her and bent down towards her, and said something to her ear. Rani was jerked and looked at her. The old woman was laughing. "He is looking great, isnt he?" she said, "if I were you I would go and sit beside him, hi hi hi."
"Sorry, you are wrong. I am looking outside. Not at him."
She coughed but said nothing.
The train whistled again and like before Rani missed her heartbeat. She prayed that he wont get off in the next station. She prayed and prayed. She looked and looked. This time she was not staring at him. She looked at him shamelessly. He turned his face and looked at her. She wondered, he just looked at her blankly. She has never seen a man like him. All the men she saw were not like him. They all gawk at her. But this man was not like them at all. And this made her attraction burgeon more and more about him. The train started to slow down. Ranis heartbeat became more faster as she watched him getting up. He wake up slowly. Yawned and then started to go. Rani heaved a sigh of relief again. He was not getting off the train. He just went outside the compartment. If he had gone he would take his bag with him. The bag was just right there on the rack. The train had a five minutes break at the station. Rani waited and waited for her prince. She could not ever believe a man would be so beautiful. She promised this time she would talk to him. Its needless to keep a burning charcoal in her heart forever. But she wondered. The man was not coming back. The train gave a whistle and started to move forward. Rani ran to the window and leaned over. She saw the beautiful man was standing at the tea stall and sipping a cup of tea. The train started to move faster. Rani knew either the man was deaf or he was absent minded. She instantly took the bag of the man and jumped outside. This was her last chance to talk to him. She got down on the station and started to walk towads the man. He turned back to Rani and saw her coming towads him with the bag and suddenly he started to walk fast to another direction.
"Hey". Rani cried from afar, "take your bag."
The man must have been a deaf or he could hear her. He had raisen a little more speed and began moving away. Rani almost ran on the platform towards him and cried. But he did not listen. And then the most traumatic sight took place. The whole station was shaken with a deadly blast. Ranis body tore into pieces and thrown in every direction. All the glass of the station shattered. People waiting at the station fell down and groped for a safe place. They were running to and fro. A little later all the hustle and bustle came to halt. People gathered at the point where Ranis shattered body lied lifeless.
The beautiful man ran into a big room gasping. "That fucking girl started to follow me with that bag." he told the bald man sitting inside the room.
"So you missed the operation?" asked the man, "to destroy that train?"
The beautiful man said nothing.
"So where is the point importing beautiful man in our terrorism arena? Your fucking beautiful face does not come into any use killing people. You are fired."
The beautiful man came out of the room and vanished in the air.
Police came a little more later. People described her as a terrorist. Police believed them. Because they saw her shouting and running just when the bomb blasted. It is very reasonable for her carring bomb. Nowadays police had been informed that terrorists started to include beautiful girls and men in them. She was one of them.
But nobody knew that Rani saved all the people of the train and sacrified her life. Her maiden love for a beautiful man invited her to the abyss of blackness.
(A copyrighted short story by Tuhin Rahman)
Sunday, December 4, 2011 8:09:18 AM
My maternal grandfather was died long before my birth, I could not see him but I can feel him in my mind. He was a salt of the earth type person. He was born in Calcutta in 1904 and saw many wars with his eyes. In his childhood Calcutta was a dark town. The street lamps were hand lit, I mean in the evening a man came with many lamps and climbed up with stair and put the lamp inside the glass cage. He would come in the morning to take them back again. I have written here in facebook about my grandmother. She was a very simple woman though a daughter of a prince, she lived a very simple life. him. I knew some facts of my grandfather that led me to asking more to my maternal uncle because he knew his father and he is evidently an observer of his fathers way of living. It was around 1930 when my grandfather was young. He was single and was very energetic man. He was a hunter and one of his other passions was to collect botanic specimen from around the corners of India and abroad. He was very brave too. He faced many hazardous situation when he controlled himself with utmost confidance and bravery. He met the famous hunter Jim Corbett once he went to some remote jungle for rare species of orchid. My grandfather soon married to a woman named "munnu jan" but their conjugal life did not last long. Munnu jan died soon and my grandfather went a mad man for his beloved wife. He started to lead an unusual life. He passed the days in the jungles and before nights he came back near his wife's grave and passed rest of the night there. The relatives found him almost abnormal and they began to request him to marry again. My grandfather did not put his ear to them and he believed one wife is forever but nature had pushed him to the next one. He married my grandmother. I wrote in my blog about my grandmother. She was the daughter of prince Munwar Sultan and Munwar who was the grandson of Prince Tipu Sultan was the last prince of India. Not only a hunter, my grandfather was a naturalist as well. He had a nursery named THE EVERGREEN NURSERY. It was located at Behala, Calcutta. The place it was located at was a vast area where were thousands of trees and plants. You would require 10 minutes to walk from one end of the nursery to the other. He had collectedvariety of species of rare plants that someone could scarcely found out from the corners of the subcontinent. Going inside the deep forest for plants my grandfather faced many dangers and viewed many abnormal incidence that people may call spooky and bizarre. On one night he was passing through a jungle in southern part of india. The night was hazy and moist from a little shower of rain. He saw inside forest two glowy eyes watching him. He stood still. The first thing came to his mind was that it was a tiger. He held his double barreled gun tightly, crouchedto that place. He found two big mushroom was glittering in the moon light. My grandfather was quite brave and bold that he did not quiver back from a place. The nursery was his favourit work place. He worked there from dawn to dusk. My grandmother was the only daughter of the Prince Munwar Sultan. She knew how to ride a horse. How to fight with sword but immature death of her father brought her down to earth. At a very early age she was married to my grandfather and had to maintain a big family. She had to learn how to cook. She was once burnt with fire and lied 6 months with the injury. I was 25 when my grandmother died in 1994. With the death of my grandmother a link was cut. My grandmother was the only person who knew the last prince of India very closely. He knew many other facts. Her favourit job was to disclose the facts to me. I wonderingly listened to her. All seemed like fairy tales. She had long gone. She usually complained British people killed her father. Yes its true. I pay homage to all Indian Prince and princes. Love to them all from my heart. I honour Tipu Sultan and all his descendants Munwar Sultan and followers, my grandmother and all "Sultanat-e-khudadad", from India.
Saturday, December 3, 2011 9:52:56 AM
Everything is a matter of your mind-I mean your brain. The brain has created everything - the society, state, government , family, religion, satisfacti on, and what making you alive is your brain. You are not living, believe me, you are a dead meat, your brain is alive so you think you are alive. Its a fake message. Every limbs of your body are dead as tools in your box. Brain commands them to do, and they do. You think they are alive. Brain commands you to do, so you do. You believe you are alive. If brain wishes he can wake you up after your death.
Thursday, November 24, 2011 8:36:03 AM
I am a writer. I know man differ in their minds, his works or characteristics, but I suffer from a different type of feeling that I believe on one does not have. You may ask me what type of feeling do I have? Ok. I believe I am from the future and I am sent to the past where I am now seeing my forefathers growing up. However, I always think I am not normal. I was a leopard in the other life, or a tiger in the Sunderbans, or even a deer in the Corbetts frequented India. I cant mix with too many people. Who am I ? Where I am from? These questions always poke me in the mind. I live alone in a tin shed house at the end of the suburb area of Dhaka.
On that special day, the day I will never be able to forget, I was sitting before the open window and seeing rain falling. The rainy reason in Bangladesh comes in the middle of the year. I was watching the beauty of the rain. Rain was falling like a waterfall. Swept by wind the big drops of rain falling from left to right. I was thinking about something that I cant remember now. But I was almost in a trance. I was in the middle of a day dream just when I heard a knock on the wooden door. I wondered a little. Who came in this rain? I waited. Then again the knock on the door pinned me to my wonder. For the third time I heard the knock. This time the knocker knocked loudly than before. I could sense the urgency in his knocking. "Who is this?" I asked.
No answer came from the knocker. I went to the door to open it. To add more to my wonder I saw a beautiful girl standing on my door. She was quite drenched with the rain. Her sari (a cloth worn by Indian Bangladeshi women) was fully wet and making a pool on the floor. Her hair was wet too. She seemed to be more wondered than me. Her mouth was little open as if she was going to tell anything to me. My feeling was different to her. She looked very common to me, as if much known. Where have I seen her I could not imagine. "come in come in. " said I, "you are fully wet."
She came in looking at me. She still trying to remember where she has seen me before. But soon she cope the environment in the room and walked in the middle. "You must have an important appointment today so you came out in this rain. " I said with a little smile.
"No." She said without smile. "I got off from the bus and then the rain started. Here is no house to take shelter in. But why you look so common to me?"
"It happens to me as well. You look so common to me. I know that black spot on your cheek. What is your name?"
"I am Naz. "
My heart jumped without any reason. Naz! Naz!! Naz!!! Where have I heard that name? She is very known to me. Why? How?
"What is your name" she looked very eager to know my name.
"Arin Sultan." I said with a little sigh. "I am a writer."
"Oh my god!"Naz looked astonished, agaped. "Arin. Oh my god, Arin! It is very known to me! Are you living here for long?"
"Yes, since my great great grandfathers, why?"
Naz stood dumb. Her face looked pale and fixed. Water drops rolling down over her cheeks gave her a new look. I did not know why she looked very common and known to me that she had been here year after year.
"I know you Arin. " Naz came closer to me. I got a beautiful smell from her body. This smell too was very common. But still I could not realize who she was. Why my brain still could not sort the puzzle out? I took a towel and extended to her. But she showed no sign to take the towel from my hand. She looked freezed. I went to the kitchen and prepared two cups of tea. I have her a cup. She sat at the corner of my bed like a robot. I sipped in my tea and asked her, "do you l
ive around here?"
She nodded negatively.
"Why then you have come here Naz?"
She sipped in the tea. Said nothing. Suddenly she looked at me, "I dont know why I got off from the bus and started walking towards your house. Then this rain started."
She finished her tea so soon and woke up, "can I go to that room Arin?"
I had only two rooms here in this tin roof house. I do not use the other room. That room was used to stuff broken furniture, unused items and books. I used it as a store room. I looked at Naz, "I dont use that room. That is a store room."
"I know that. But it was not before. There is a big trunk of your grandfather, right?"
It gave me a shivering chill. My body now started to tremble as if a palm leaf in the wind. Naz was trembling too. May be it was out of excitement. But mine was merely an unknown spooky feeling inside. "ok. lets go." I did not ask her how did she know about my grandfather? I opened the door of the other room. A dark entrance. Some mouses jumped this way and that squeaking. Some interfered bats started to make sound from the ceiling. I tried to switch on the light but at the same time it was a load shedding. And the electricity went off. I groped and found a candle from under the closed window. I lit it. A yellowish colour light poured inside the room and gave the room a melting gold romantic glamour. Naz rose her finger, "thats it, thats it. Please open it. There is a chocolate coloured diary inside."
I wondered and looked at Naz but said no word. I stepped towards the big iron trunk. I felt my feet trembling. I put the key inside the lock and without a minor complain the lock was opened. I wondered how did it happen! A rusted lock could not be easily opened. No one had opened it within a time of a hundred years! But it was opened like a new lock! Yes I found it. A chocolate coloured diary inside with many other smaller family things. Naz came and stood beside me. "Open it Arin. " her voice seemed more pacific than a little before. More tidier.
I opened the diary. A 3r sized pictured dropped near my feet from inside it. I took the picture and turned. And I froze. A chilling cold came up towards my head along the spine. I am holding Naz in that picture. Naz was smiling in the picture as if she was very happy and I was embracing her from behind. The diary slid and fell down from my hand. I rose my face to her, " who are you?"
Naz smilled at me and sat beside, "its you and me. "
"No. " She said. "its you and me but not in this life. This is the picture of other life."
"Yes Arin, we died and born again. This was our house. Our family. Can you remember? Try to remember. You will be able to. I can remember everything. In our past life you were my husband. This was our house. This was our family. You said this trunk belonged to your grandfather. But it was you. Hundred years before you were your grandfather. And you are born in the family of your own son. He is your father now. You died from cancer. You loved me too much. Before dying you requested THE ALMIGHTY to give you a birth again in this family where you will get me as a wife. NATURE accepted your request and prayer at that time. So he gave you another life in the same place to complete your wish. And he gave me back to you."
I could not think anything clearly but like a dream dreamed in the night it was becoming clearer. Very slowly the curtain was pulled before my eyes.
She held my hand in a strong grip. "Thats why nature got me down from the bus near your house, sent me to your house. You are my husband Arin. You were my husband more than one hundred years before. We regained a new life again. All the details of your last life you wrote in this diary. You can read it. Now acknowledge to the almighty nature. I looked at Naz. She is much prettier than I thought. She has been my wife since my last life! I cant believe. I cant believe.
- - - - - - -
Suddenly I jerked and jumped up. I looked around. The rain had been worsen. Storm was coming. Oh that was a dream. I thought it was real. It Seemed to me so realistic dream. None came to my house. No Naz, no diary, no rebirth. Then I turned my head and saw there were two empty tea cups near my bed. I could remember in my dream I had prepared two cups of tea. Naz could not empty her cup. Her cup was there too. At the corner of the bed the bed cover was still wet and crumbled. Oh my god! The Door to the other room was open too. The same chill went up along my spine. Was it not a dream? Was it real? Naz actually came to me? Was it my second life?
A knock on the door again! I jumped up. Who came on such a rainy and stormy day? My soul knew the answer. I went to the door smiling....
A PUBLISHED AND COPYRIGHTED SHORT STORY BY TUHIN RAHMAN.
Saturday, September 17, 2011 3:29:54 AM
The number of books will grow continually, and one can predict that a time will come when it will be almost as difficult to learn anything from books as from the direct study of the whole universe. It will be almost as convenient to search for some bit of truth concealed in nature as it will be to find it hidden away in an immense multitude of bound volumes.
Saturday, September 3, 2011 8:50:26 AM
change the world with all your might.
Friday, August 5, 2011 2:33:48 PM
By all accounts, rhinoceros poaching in southern Africa has reached alarming levels. During this past weekend alone, four rhinos were poached in South Africa, one being shot from a helicopter registered with false license plates. A total of 220 were killed for their horns in 2009 and, after this weekend’s slaughter, the 2010 tally is approaching 80. For anyone looking at trends, this year’s figure is already higher than the totals for 2005, 2006 and 2007 combined, when fewer than 70 animals were killed.
But there has also been some good news: the syndicate comprising a group of professional hunters that were featured in my article ‘The Tip of the Horn’ (Africa Geographic September 2008) has been hit hard by the Asset Forfeiture Unit (AFU). Under the Prevention of Organised Crime Act, the North Gauteng High Court recently granted the AFU a restraint order entitling them to seize R45-million of assets from the accused.
Clayton Fletcher, Gert Saaiman and Andries van Deventer, the hunters, and Kumaran Moodaley, the person fingered as the ‘mule’ in the syndicate, are still regarded by police as the major players. Since the article, five other respondents have been added to the charge sheet, and all are set to go on trial suspected of operating a large-scale illegal rhino hunting and horn smuggling ring. The accused will also face a variety of other charges, including racketeering, money laundering, theft and contraventions of various conservation and aviation acts.
Assets seized include all residential properties and numerous farms, including seven outside Tosca in the North West Province that comprise Sandhurst Safaris. The Fletchers and Sandhurst have over the years become associated with the breeding and trading in large predators as well as canned hunting. A helicopter and light aircraft, apparently used in the operations, and various other business interests of the accused also fall under the order.
This is a significant victory in the fight against organised crime, and those involved – various provincial branches of South African Police Service, the Hawks, the National Prosecuting Authority and the AFU – need to be congratulated on their successes and the excellent police work that has gone into fighting this group. The next step is for them to get a successful conviction at the criminal trial that is set for mid October 2010.
But back to the situation on the ground – the present rate of killing represents a serious threat to the future of the region’s rhino populations. This is not only because of the numbers killed, but also the manner in which the syndicates are operating: extremely efficiently and effectively. While it is encouraging that the South African authorities have responded by setting up a new specialised team, the National Wildlife Reaction Unit, to tackle the problem, I believe it is going to require more than this. It is my suspicion that there are insiders at work here and that all involved in dealing with rhino at whatever level need to start carefully reviewing their staff. These syndicates have influential people assisting them who may include rangers, senior managers and private veterinarians. [/FONT][/FONT][/FONT]
Friday, July 8, 2011 10:48:16 AM
I wanted to see the heaven. I wanted to see the hell. Where we are from? Where we are going to? Is there anything called hell? Where it is situated then? Is it somewhere out in the universe? Or is it somewhere near our territory but beyond our realization? Very likely the last one may satisfy my thirst. Who thinks of these in present world? All are exact set for money. Who can see beyond that limit of perception? Yes, he who can have enough time to ponder, have good knowledge and keen insight, sound perception on theological anatomy and the last but not least I believe who is communed with THE nature is succeeded to see through the veil before the eyes. The veil of mystery. Have you ever visited the slaughter house? The goats are watching the butcher approaches them with a big knife. One goat has been slaughtered and others watched it. Blood sprayed all over the floor, the goat jerked then kicked and then lied still. Others knew it was also sealed on their fate to be slaughtered, be pieces, be thrown into hot oil-how it would feel? Is Death going to unchain them from bondage? Is this the hell? I have seen a boy of 15 in the ICU waking up in the middle of a state of sleeplessness running to and fro calling "doctors, give me something to sleep. Please! I cant sleep!" For the third time he was injected high power sedative. Half an hour later he wake up in pain in his whole body. He has not been sedated. Pain tore him off. But no doctor could put him to sleep. He died 3 hours later. Where was the problem? Why nature wanted him to put in severe pain, a macabre nightmare! Had he not tolerated the pain similar to the hells? Thousands of similar examples will appear before you of hell-like phenomena provided you posses keen and natural perception. I have seen heavenly phenomena, as well. A family lived beside my house. They had four children but none shouted at all. They were very handsome and gentle like their parents. They had enough riches to do a business, husband and wife both were highly qualified and beautiful. It seemed to me they not only love each other they were made for each other so they search for every items they have not found yet in others. They all were veg and I have never seen them going to the doctors. Now after 16 years they are same as before. It seemed like yesterday when they were married. I see many people can perceive my feelings and they have the similar ideas about heaven and hell. You will instant get the prize of your good or bad deed. But we sometimes observe some bad men still doing wrongs and nature does not pays them any heed. I think it is just because they have not yet reached the finish line. Once they will touch it nature will start giving them the respective reward. One man was dying in cancer, in severe pain, tried several time to talk-blood came out from the sore in the throat. Neighbours were whispering, what a wrong punishment of god! This man was very honest. Pure like a drop of holy water. Hah, I thought in disgust, this man was a road side hen seller. It could be an honest business but it must have been with a bad result. He used those living birds like goods. He never thought they could have conscious feelings like any living being. He unloaded those hens from the truck and threw them in cages. Whenever his clients came he slaughtered those hens and never cared what time it was. He even slaughtered sleeping hens at 11 in the night. Alright, it is a business but with living birds. I looked at the man. How strange! He had a sore in his throat and blood was coming out whenever he tried to speak. Oh god! He was quite like a just slaughted hen. Just slaughtered for long time, as long it took before dying.....
Friday, May 13, 2011 9:45:20 AM
Its a sci-fi novel written by me. Copyrighted and published book. It is not possible for me to write the whole in this short space but I have tried to put down the synopsis at large. I hope that Hollywood moviemakers will envy my novel if they once read.
The year was somewhere between 2040 and 2045. The earth was still existing and the human race has become seriously corrupted by every means. America already destroyed half of the universe and posted colonies around the world. Jews were came forward with Americans new adventure theme 'My business' and founded one stop business rule to take over China. Chinese market policy was doomed and America was happy. Since China was silent but the reason was unknown. But this was revealed very soon. China had gone down the earth. They had built a new generation 5 miles under the earth. This news was a big WHAT! for the Americans. CIA started to seek a good source to learn more. And soon they did and their jaw dropped. China had already started for America from down the earth. They had plans to create hollows just under the beautiful cities of America. Why the hell America is still silent! The war started. But with whom to fight? China had already gone under the earth. Super Robots guarded their caveways. America understood that it is not possible to fight above earth. So they as well had to go down earth and build stations. But this is not a war novel. Here is the start of a new adventure of some men who were assigned to do some work by the higher authority.
They were Richard Bent a tough man in CIA. The one of two brother Michael Douglas from FBI, The merciless inventor of Military weapons Orland Lain, Brain Stormer Sheen Paul, Nicholas Aerod a good man from white house, Pentagones most senior officer Milford Thomas, and Albert Nail a trained weapon mechanic.
According to a top secret code they all set out to Northern Arizona where they met a group of diggers who already set up a underground base camp. Richard who was the hero of the novel had already won their heart for his bravery. The group of seven started for the base camp 5 miles down of the desert. They were trained but now they could understand that how hard it was to make a journey down the earth. They were now 5 miles down the earth. Beautiful base camp. None could imagine that it was down the earth. It was like a big apartment or a duplex with lots of instrument. It was like the control room of the CIA. Every instrument was brand new and worked nicely. They were satisfied. 3 days passed. Richard started to check around the earth down the base camp where he set two sensible conductor pole. That worked beautifully, but he could not sense any movement with that poles. He thought he could certainly sense the movement of the chinese people over there. On the day seven they started more down leaving the base camp. And then came along the danger after them. The big elevator was suddenly shaken and started to fall. Before realizing what was happening they loose consciousness. When they awakened they found them in a different world. (buy the book which will soon be released in the USA. If you are a moviemaker and are interested to make it a movie pls contact me)
Friday, April 8, 2011 9:22:02 AM
The religion says pride, jealousy and envy are the main three vices that destroy the humanity. Jealousy and envy may corrode moral characteristic of a person but my belief is pride protects a man or a woman from vice. A true, honest and talented man or woman has his / her own pride. It may be called the pride of the soul. God has poured into a true heart a certain amount of pride that covers him away from vice particles of the world. Pride never harms anybody as envy and jealousy do. It coils inside the brain like a serpent and seldom awake except the soul gets involved in sin. If you generate or animate your conscience you discover fifty percent of that is processed from pride itself. Pride checks greed, pride controls envy, pride controls bribery and so on. If you came of a gentle and respected family you cant take bribe, you cant go to brothel, you cant herm other, you cant speak as you should not just out of your pride. Pride protects your character. In my country dark skinned girls are considered less attractive and are same to value. Boys are not attracted to them. So they become very easy lay to boys. But beautiful girls are not. Beautiful girls have pride in them that protects them becoming easy lay of boys. Dark skinned girls have little pride in them to be protected. So they become easy. It is not only a scenario in my country. In America fat woman are regarded less attractive comparing slim beauties. They have little pride to protect them. If you are a good actor, artist, model, writer or any rich man you must have your own pride. It is fortunate that god bestowed pride in us to protect the universe.
Wednesday, March 16, 2011 10:23:45 AM
Doctors. A sweet-to-hear name that provokes inside every man a inspiration and hope to live longer. Were there a man in past who hated doctors? They had been angels when they did actually take part to enlighten the lives. In my own country Bangladesh and India I have witnessed hundreds of examples of doctors who sacrificed their lives for the patients. Some doctors shook off the well and woes of their lives and attended the poor patients. I know Ramesh doctor who had a small shop in a village. He visited patients without any fees. Sometimes he travelled on night long journeys to reach the patients house. And what is happening today in Bangladesh? Are they doctors? Or should I say medical businessmen? A medical businessman alias doctor should sell prescriptions to the patient and take commissions from the medicines in the farmacy. When you will read this article you can barely believe that doctors come to the profession only for money, and not from a little wish to serve the people and humanity. I am talking about the doctors in Bangladesh. Common and general physicians and doctors of Bangladesh. Why do they come to this profession? Just for the money. A sheer lust of crispy notes of bucks. Or? Or what? Well... They think of their status too. The profession as a doctor is much more prestigious than any other professions in this country. So they become doctors. You will be wondered if you hear a gang of doctors took part of the vandals in front of the medical college and damaging and breaking public cars and buses for little causes. What will you say then? Doctors are vandals in Bangladesh? Yes they are. Read the news of the dailies.
BBC BANGLA, 31 May 2009
" itated interns ransacked four rooms including the rooms of Emergency Department and the director of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital (MMCH) in protest against 'assault' of a colleague by a patient's attendants on Friday night.
The interns also beat up patient's attendant Rabbi, seriously injuring him.
Eight-month-old Labbi, daughter of Abdul Gani of village Kaltapara in Gouripur upazila, was admitted to the MMCH at around 10:00pm on Friday but she was not given any treatment after two hours of her admission, said her relatives.
As Labbi's maternal uncle Rabbi went to the interns' room and requested them to take necessary steps for her treatment, serious altercation followed.
The intern doctors caught Rabbi, took him to the Doctor's Club and beat him mercilessly. Critically injured Rabbi was admitted to MMCH.
Later the intern doctors ransacked four rooms of MMCH. "
THERE ARE MORE ITEMS ON THE NEWSPAPERS:
DHAKARNEWS, 28 feb 2011
" rns and students of Mymensingh Medical College and Hospital (MMCH) continued their strike for the third day yesterday demanding arrest of the outsiders who vandalised hospital rooms and injured some students and interns on the campus on Thursday night."
"gpur, Jan 29 (bdnews24.com) — Interns at Rangpur Medical College Hospital have gone on an indefinite strike protesting attack on a fellowman by unknown criminals."
Few years back I have seen a group of IPGMR students took part as vandals and were breaking cars in front of the hospital. I could not believe my eyes that those future doctors were breaking cars on minor reason. What that minor reason was? That was very simple. A patient had been admitted to the hospital and doctors neglected and the patient died. So the patients relatives went mad and ransacked through the rooms. In return the intern doctors went out the hospital and vandalised many cars on the road. How do they become so terrible? That is an absent minded question, however, I want to focus on a different type of mentality of the doctors in Bangladesh. That is one of the reasons why common people become angry on doctors and get involved in fighting. If you are seriously sick or wounded no hospital except Dhaka medical college hospital would receive you in the emergency. Why? Dont they have any emergency room? Dont they have life saving options? In 1990 when my father went seriously sick and hospitalization was imminent I along with some of my relatives went to IPGMR a famous hospital in Bangladesh. But doctors told me to keep my father out in the varanda not inside ICU. I requested him to take my father inside, at least inside the hospital room. The doctor said "no". And my father soon died. I was very angry and I wanted to kill that stupid doctor. It was very natural for me on that moment. I can understand how do they feel when their nearest and dearest ones dies for the mare irresponsibility of doctors. Its a life and death situation let alone getting better treatment from them.
Dont we need to annihilate those demon doctors? Or dont we want to abolish those abominable systems not to register a dying patient in the hospitals? Do hospitals perceive beforehand that the patient will die so they will not be able to get profit from him. And they shoo off the dying patient immorally? Dear blog reader, have you ever heard of such a nice business place like hospitals in Bangladesh? Everyday you open the newspaper and you can see PATIENT DIED FROM INSINCERITY OF THE DOCTOR. THE DYING PATIENT HAD BEEN DRIVEN TO 7 HOSPITALS BEFORE DYING. Every year many patients seek true and committed doctors in India. Each year thousands of patients are going to India before the sticky nose of white feathered thumb sucking doctors of Bangladesh.
Friday, March 11, 2011 3:25:46 AM
No. Its not the day you are thinking about. Its not the day just after the thanksgiving day what you can expect in America. Neither it is a day in the Christian world. Its a day recently named in Bangladesh. Its not a fun. On 4 March, the last friday, there was a cricket match between Bangladesh and West Indies in Dhaka stadium. Our bad luck is that we were defeated only scoring 58 run. Only scoring 58 run all out. Its was something like a big occasion in Bangladesh. People bought good dress. Cooked good food. Some companies showed the sport on big screen. But alas! We were at a loss. Only 58 runs and West Indies came in the second innings and smiled off the victory. After that we call the day BLACK FRIDAY. Now people of Bangladesh know only one black friday that is 4th March 2011
Friday, March 4, 2011 4:42:15 AM
Dr. Mohammad Eunus is a Bangladeshi economist and founder of the Grameen Bank, an institution that provides microcredit (small loans to poor people possessing no collateral) to help its clients establish creditworthiness and financial self-sufficiency. In 2006 Yunus and Grameen received the Nobel Prize for Peace. Yunus himself has received several other national and international honors.
He previously was a professor of economics where he developed the concepts of microcredit and microfinance. These loans are given to entrepreneurs too poor to qualify for traditional bank loans. He is the author of Banker to the Poor and a founding board member of Grameen America and Grameen Foundation. In early 2007 Yunus showed interest in launching a political party in Bangladesh named Nagorik Shakti (Citizen Power), but later discarded the plan. He is one of the founding members of Global Elders.
Yunus also serves on the board of directors of the United Nations Foundation, a public charity created in 1998 with entrepreneur and philanthropist Ted Turner’s historic $1 billion gift to support United Nations causes. The UN Foundation builds and implements public-private partnerships to address the world’s most pressing problems, and broadens support for the UN.
In 1976, during visits to the poorest households in the village of Jobra near Chittagong University, Yunus discovered that very small loans could make a disproportionate difference to a poor person. Jobra women who made bamboo furniture had to take out usurious loans for buying bamboo, to pay their profits to the moneylenders. His first loan, consisting of US$27.00 from his own pocket, was made to 42 women in the village, who made a net profit of BDT 0.50 (US$0.02) each on the loan. Accumulated through many loans, this vastly improving Bangladesh's ability to export and import as it did in the past, resulting in a greater form of globalization and economic status.
Dr. Akhtar Hameed Khan, founder of the Pakistan Academy for Rural Development (now Bangladesh Academy for Rural Development), is credited alongside Yunus for pioneering the idea. From his experience at Jobra, Yunus, an admirer of Dr. Hameed, realized that the creation of an institution was needed to lend to those who had nothing. While traditional banks were not interested in making tiny loans at reasonable interest rates to the poor due to high repayment risks, Yunus believed that given the chance the poor will repay the borrowed money and hence microcredit could be a viable business model.
Yunus finally succeeded in securing a loan from the government Janata Bank to lend it to the poor in Jobra in December 1976. The institution continued to operate by securing loans from other banks for its projects. By 1982, the bank had 28,000 members. On 1 October 1983 the pilot project began operations as a full-fledged bank and was renamed the Grameen Bank (Village Bank) to make loans to poor Bangladeshis. Yunus and his colleagues encountered everything from violent radical leftists to the conservative clergy who told women that they would be denied a Muslim burial if they borrowed money from the Grameen Bank. As of July 2007, Grameen Bank has issued US$ 6.38 billion to 7.4 million borrowers. To ensure repayment, the bank uses a system of "solidarity groups". These small informal groups apply together for loans and its members act as co-guarantors of repayment and support one another's efforts at economic self-advancement.
The Grameen Bank started to diversify in the late 1980s when it started attending to unutilized or underutilized fishing ponds, as well as irrigation pumps like deep tubewells. In 1989, these diversified interests started growing into separate organizations, as the fisheries project became Grameen Motsho (Grameen Fisheries Foundation) and the irrigation project became Grameen Krishi (Grameen Agriculture Foundation). Over time, the Grameen initiative has grown into a multi-faceted group of profitable and non-profit ventures, including major projects like Grameen Trust and Grameen Fund, which runs equity projects like Grameen Software Limited, Grameen CyberNet Limited, and Grameen Knitwear Limited, as well as Grameen Telecom, which has a stake in Grameenphone (GP), biggest private sector phone company in Bangladesh. The Village Phone (Polli Phone) project of GP has brought cell-phone ownership to 260,000 rural poor in over 50,000 villages since the beginning of the project in March 1997.
The success of the Grameen model of microfinancing has inspired similar efforts in a hundred countries throughout the developing world and even in industrialized nations, including the United States. Many, but not all, microcredit projects also retain its emphasis on lending specifically to women. More than 94% of Grameen loans have gone to women, who suffer disproportionately from poverty and who are more likely than men to devote their earnings to their families. For his work with the Grameen Bank, Yunus was named an Ashoka: Innovators for the Public Global Academy Member in 2001.
Muhammad Yunus was awarded the 2006 Nobel Peace Prize, along with Grameen Bank, for their efforts to create economic and social development.
mer U.S. president Bill Clinton was a vocal advocate for the awarding of the Nobel Prize to Muhammed Yunus. He expressed this in Rolling Stone magazine as well as in his autobiography My Life. In a speech given at University of California, Berkeley in 2002, President Clinton described Dr. Yunus as "a man who long ago should have won the Nobel Prize [and] I’ll keep saying that until they finally give it to him."
Dr. Mohammad Yunus has been fired from his role as managing director of Grameen Bank, essentially because he did not seek approval of his leadership role from Bangladesh Bank, the central bank of Bangladesh. This is the charge against him. But the people of Bangladesh believe it is not that reason why he is fired. it is a worst example of violence and jealousy of the (?)
Tuesday, March 1, 2011 2:48:45 PM
Whenever I sign in to my opera I scarcely find any of my virtual friends is online. Most of them are silent and offline. One of my my opera friend advised me not to waste much time here because it is not profitable and I should poke my nose into reality. I sometimes stumble against some questions like WHAT IS REALITY? IS IT THAT WE ARE ACTIVELY IN? OR THE OTHER SIDE OF EARTHLY REALITY?
I dont know what people think about it. They are very busy with their everyday activities. They believe it is the reality that they earn money, be happy for a certain period of earth time. I dont have much of a religious's knowledge, still I have to believe that death takes away everything of rich mans prosperity. So why do you earn money? Why do you want to build a castle? why do you think you have to deposit huge amount of money in the Swiss bank account? Do you have any certainity of the expansion of your life that you may confide in your breath to be everlast? Are you earning the money to be deposited for your future generation? You are dropping the last drop of your sweat just for nothing. What is then reality? This small amount of time during your living might play false with you. People say I am bored, I am frustrated, I am so tired. My suggestion is to say life is nothing. Try earn to feed yourself. Never think to feed your whole generation that follow you. Is this a reality of earning? You say go fast. Time is more important than life. So why do you waste time lying in the grave? Does the amount you earned the whole life can buy amenities in your grave? If a man lie idle like a coach potato and read books and earn knowledge and feeds him austerly you call him a fool and advise him to come to reality. If he advises you not to earn money as much not needed will you listen to him? True contemplation can give you that power to understand the true reality. So you will believe all tensions are fake. Be in peace and think not to have been pressurized without true reasons. Remember tensions are completely worldly feeling. So what is reality? This or that?
Monday, February 28, 2011 10:12:02 AM
Learning English through the grammar is more important than learning English through practices. When you are in an English environment it is easy for you to learn how they speak but if you do not know the rules you cant write. Grammatical rules are important for writing. It is seen that a student takes years before he finally reaches a place. Some students fail to understand. Why they fail? Because the terms of English are not clear to them or the terms are explained the other way. Terms are presented in a hard language. As you say WHAT IS A NAME IS A NOUN. It is not presented in a correct way. Name is a noun but proper noun. What about common nouns? Table, chair, computer, house are not names but why they belong to noun then? My T.R's theory says EVERY VISIBLE OBJECT IS A NOUN (with a little exception) WHEN A QUESTION MARK IS GIVEN AGAINST A NOUN IT IS ADJECTIVE. WHEN THE NOUN MOVES IT A VERB. IF YOU PUT A QUESTION AGAINST THE VERB IT IS .ADVERB. This is like
"The mad dog runs quickly"
The dog ? = mad
The dog (?) =runs
Runs ? = quickly
There are more beautiful process to learn English through clues and symbols of T.R theory. T.R's theory is named after the two initials of my first and last names Tuhin Rahman. If you want to know more about this theory or any term or if you want to solve any grammatical problem please comment here.
Wednesday, February 23, 2011 10:02:54 AM
Jatiyo Sangsad Bhaban is the National Assembly Building of Bangladesh, located in the capital Dhaka. It was created by architect Louis I. Kahn and is one of the largest legislative complexes in the world. It houses all parliamentary activities of Bangladesh.
Construction of the Jatiya Shangshad Bhaban began in 1961 by the Government of Pakistan as a permanent building for the federal legislature of both West and East Pakistan. However, it was the eighth (and last) session of the second parliament of Bangladesh that first used it on 15 February 1982 after its construction was completed on 28 January of the same year. The Jatiya Sangsad Bhaban has been in operation and has acted as the sole complex used as the National Assembly ever since.
Jatiya Shangshad was designed by Louis Kahn. First, Muzharul Islam was given to design Jatiya Shangshad Bhaban by the government. But, Islam brought his teacher Louis Kahn into the project to do a signifant work for future generation. But, Muzharul Islam assisted Kahn at the project.
Beginning of construction: 1961
Cost of construction and design: Tk. 129 crore or 1.29 billion (=1,290,000,000)
Inauguration: 28 January 1982
Architect: Louis I. Kahn
Total area: 200 acres (800,000 m²) The Bhaban consists of nine individual blocks: the eight peripheral blocks rise to a height of 110' while the central octagonal block rises to a height of 155'. All nine blocks include different groups of functional spaces and have different levels, inter-linked horizontally and vertically by corridors, lifts, stairs, light courts, and circular areas. The entire structure is designed to blend into one single, non-differentiable unit, that appears from the exterior to be a single story. The most important part of the Main Plaza is the Parliament Chamber, which can house up to 354 members during sessions. There are also two podiums and two galleries for VIP visitors. The Chamber has a maximum height of 117' with a parabolic shell roof. The roof was designed with a clearance of a single story to let in daylight. Daylight, reflecting from the surrounding walls and octagonal drum, filters into the Parliament Chamber. The efficient and aesthetic use of light was a strong architectural capability of Louis Kahn.
The artificial lighting system has been carefully devised to provide zero obstruction to the entry of daylight. A composite chandelier is suspended from parabolic shell roof. This chandelier in turn consists of a metallic web, spanning the entire chamber, that supports the individual light fixtures.
Upper levels of the block (that contains the Chamber) contain the visitor and press galleries, as well as communication booths, all of which overlook the Parliament Chamber. The block also contains:
at level one, a library;
at level three, MPs’ lounges; and
at the upper level, party rooms. Although entrance to the Bhaban, the Main Building, is limited to authorized members of Parliament and staff, the Jatiyo Sangshad complex is open to visitors. On the North of complex, across the Lake Road, is Crescent Lake and Zia Uddan (also called Chondrima Uddan). The two complexes together form a major attraction for tourists in Dhaka. The complexes are popular among joggers and skaters of Dhaka. The official Prime Minister's Residence is on the North West corner of the Mirpur Road and Lake Road crossing and is a five minute walk from the Jatiyo Sangsad Bhaban. The area is one of the higher security zones of Dhaka.
The Complex can be accessed using any of the four roads surrounding it, however, the Manik Mia Avenue and Lake Road are the easiest approaches.
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