Sodium carbonate Na2CO3 China-technical-40kg Industry chemicals
Friday, April 20, 2012 2:54:33 AM
Product description :
Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda or soda ash), Na2CO3 is a sodium salt of carbonic acid. It most commonly occurs as acrystalline heptahydrate, which readily effloresces to form a white powder, the monohydrate. Sodium carbonate is domestically well known for its everyday use as a water softener. It can be extracted from the ashes of many plants. It is synthetically produced in large quantities from salt (sodium chloride) and limestone in a process known as the Solvay process.
The manufacture of glass is one of the most important uses of sodium carbonate. When combined with silica and calcium carbonate and heated to high temperatures, then cooled rapidly, glass is produced. This type of glass is known as soda lime glass.
Sodium carbonate is also used as a relatively strong base in various settings. For example, sodium carbonate is used as a pH regulator to maintain stable alkaline conditions necessary for the action of the majority of photographic developing agents.
It is a common additive in municipal pools used to neutralize the acidic effects of chlorine and raise pH.
In cooking, it is sometimes used in place of sodium hydroxide for lyeing, especially with German pretzels and lye rolls. These dishes are treated with a solution of an alkaline substance in order to change the pH of the surface of the food and thus improve browning.
In taxidermy, sodium carbonate added to boiling water will remove flesh from the skull or bones of trophies to create the "European skull mount" or for educational display in biological and historical studies.
In chemistry, it is often used as an electrolyte. This is because electrolytes are usually salt-based, and sodium carbonate acts as a very good conductor in the process of electrolysis. In addition, unlike chloride ions, which form chlorine gas, carbonate ions are not corrosive to the anodes. It is also used as a primary standard for acid-base titrations because it is solid and air-stable, making it easy to weigh accurately.
In domestic use, it is used as a water softener during laundry. It competes with the magnesium and calcium ions in hard water and prevents them from bonding with the detergent being used. Without using washing soda, additional detergent is needed to soak up the magnesium and calcium ions. Called washing soda, soda crystals, or sal soda in the detergent section of stores, it effectively removes oil, grease, and alcohol stains. Sodium carbonate is also used as a descaling agent in boilers such as those found in coffee pots, espresso machines, etc.
In dyeing with fiber-reactive dyes, sodium carbonate (often under a name such as soda ash fixative or soda ash activator) is used to ensure proper chemical bonding of the dye with cellulose (plant) fibers, typically before dyeing (for tie dyes), mixed with the dye (for dye painting), or after dyeing (for immersion dyeing).
Sodium carbonate is a food additive (E500) used as an acidity regulator, anti-caking agent, raising agent, and stabilizer. It is one of the components of kansui, a solution of alkaline salts used to give ramen noodles their characteristic flavor and texture. It is also used in the production of snus (Swedish-style snuff) to stabilize the pH of the final product. In Sweden, snus is regulated as a food product because it is put into the mouth, requires pasteurization, and contains only ingredients that are approved as food additives.
Sodium carbonate is also used in the production of sherbet powder. The cooling and fizzing sensation results from the endothermic reaction between sodium carbonate and a weak acid, commonly citric acid, releasing carbon dioxide gas, which occurs when the sherbet is moistened by saliva.
In China, it is used to replace lye-water in the crust of traditional Cantonese moon cakes, and in many other Chinese steamed buns and noodles.
Sodium carbonate is used by the brick industry as a wetting agent to reduce the amount of water needed to extrude the clay.
In casting, it is referred to as "bonding agent" and is used to allow wet alginate to adhere to gelled alginate.
Sodium carbonate is used in toothpastes, where it acts as a foaming agent and an abrasive, and to temporarily increase mouth pH.
Sodium carbonate is used to create the photo process known as reticulation.
Sodium carbonate, in a solution with common salt, may be used for cleaning silver. In a non-reactive container (glass, plastic or ceramic) aluminium foil and the silver object are immersed in the hot salt solution. The elevated pH dissolves the aluminium oxide layer on the foil and enables an electrolytic cell to be established . Hydrogen ions produced by this reaction reduce the sulphide ions on the silver restoring silver metal. The sulphide can be released as small amounts of hydrogen sulphide. Rinsing and gently polishing the silver restores a highly polished condition. 
CAS number 497-19-8 ,
EC number 207-838-8
RTECS number VZ4050000
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Molecular formula Na2CO3
Molar mass 105.9784 g/mol (anhydrous)
124.00 g/mol (monohydrate)
286.14 g/mol (decahydrate)
Appearance White solid, hygroscopic
Density 2.54 g/cm3 (anhydrous)
2.25 g/cm3 (monohydrate)
1.51 g/cm3 (heptahydrate)
1.46 g/cm3 (decahydrate)
851 °C (anhydrous)
100 °C (decomp, monohydrate)
33.5 °C (decomp, decahydrate)
32 °C (heptahydrate)
1633 °C (anhydrous)
Solubility in water 7 g/100 mL (0 °C)
21.6 g/100 mL (20 °C)
450 g/L (100 °C)
Solubility insoluble in ethanol, acetone
Basicity (pKb) 4.67
Refractive index(nD) 1.485 (anhydrous)
geometry trigonal planar
Std enthalpy of
formation ΔfHo298 −1131 kJ·mol−1
entropy So298 136 J·mol−1·K−1
EU Index 011-005-00-2
EU classification Irritant (Xi)
S-phrases (S2), S22, S26
Flash point Non-flammable
LD50 4090 mg/kg (rat, oral)
Other anions Sodium bicarbonate
Other cations Lithium carbonate
Related compounds Ammonium carbonate